Types of Weaves

Types of weaves have often been mistaken for types of fabrics. Each different fiber content advances towards the hand and drape of the fabric. The most common type of weaves have been described in this section.

Plain
* Most simple and most common type of construction
* Inexpensive to produce, durable
* Flat, tight surface is conducive to printing and other finishes
* Method of Construction:
* Each filling yarn goes alternately under and over the warp yarns

Common Fabrics: Cotton calicos, cheesecloth, gingham, percale, voile
Common Uses: Draperies, tablecloths, upholstery


Basket
* A variation of the plain weave
* Usually basket or checkerboard pattern
* Contrasting colors are often used
* Inexpensive, less durable than plain weave

Method of Construction: Two or more warps simultaneously interlaced with one or more fillings
Common Fabrics: Monks cloth, oxford
Common Uses: Wall hangings, pillows

Twill
* Creates a diagonal, chevron, houndstooth, corkscrew, or other design
* The design is enhanced with colored yarn
* Is strong and may develop a shine

Method of Construction: Three or more shafts; warp or filling floats over two or more counterpart yarns in progressive steps right or left.
Common Fabrics: Denim, gabardine, serge, tweed
Common Uses: Upholstery, comforters, pillows

Satin
* Smooth, soft luster
* Excellent drapability
* Floats snag easily

Method of Construction: Floats one warp yarn over four or more weft yarns, then tied down with one thread, resulting in a smooth face
Common Fabrics: Satin, satin-weave fabrics out of fabrics such as cotton.
Common Uses: Draperies, quilts

Jacquard
* Yarns woven into unlimited designs, often intricate, multicolor effect
* Expensive, but the design doesnot fade or wear out
* Durability depends on the fiber used
* The Jacquard loom was invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard

Method of Construction: Warp is individually controlled with each pick passage creating intricate design.
Common Fabrics: Brocade, damask, tapestry
Common Uses: Upholstery, wall hangings

Leno
* A mesh-like fabric

Method of Construction: A pair of warp threads are passed over and under the filling yarns in a figure 8 or an hourglass twist, creating a geometric pattern
Common Uses: Thermal Blankets, curtains

Knit
* Soft, stretchy

Method of Construction:
Interlooping yarns
- In weft knitting, loops are formed by hand or machine as yarn is added in crosswise direction.
- In warp knitting, loops are formed vertically by machine, one row at a time
Common Fabrics: Raschel warp knits
Common Uses: Not used extensively in design with the exception of raschel warp knits which are used in making curtains and draperies

Uncut pile
* Loops are possible on both sides of fabric
* Soft and absorbent, relatively inexpensive
* Can snag if loops are caught

Method of Construction: Generally, a plain or twill weave with a third dimension--additional warp yarn or filling yarn is introduced into the basic structure and forms a loop at regular intervals.
Common Fabrics: Frieze, terry cloth
Common Uses: Upholstery, towels, carpet, area rugs

Cut Pile
* Soft and warm, resilient, absorbent
* May have a nap that must be matched
* May be expensive and need professional cleaning

Method of Construction: Similar to uncut pile, but loops have been cut
Common Fabrics: Corduroy, velvet, velveteen
Common Uses: Upholstery, stage draperies

Non-woven
* Does not have a distinct pattern
* Generally stiff and somewhat scratchy

Common Fabrics: Pelon
Common Uses: Bedding, backing for quilts, dust cloths for box springs, carpet backing, and upholstered furniture

Felt
* Soft, non-woven, can pull apart

Method of Construction: Felting occurs when heat, moisture, agitation, and pressure are applied to wool fibers, causing the fibers to interlock permanently.
Common Fabrics: Felt
Uses: Padding, sound-proofing, insulation, filtering, and polishing, wall hangings and other decorative items

Film
* Plastic-like material, repels liquid, stiff
* Mildews, rots, tears
* Inexpensive, fairly durable

Method of Construction: Made from synthetic solutions formed into thin sheets
Common Fabrics: Vinyl
Uses: Tablecloths, shower curtains, draperies, upholstery, and wall coverings

Foam
* Soft, air holes, absorbent, resilient

Method of Construction: Rubber or polyurethane substance with air incorporated causing foaming, quite inexpensive, rots
Common Fabrics: Sponges
Common Uses: Carpet backing, padding, pillows and cushions, laminates to other fabrics

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